Previous studies with infrared spectroscopes have provided evidence of small amounts of chemically or physically bound water. Future colonists on Mars will be able to tap into these ice deposits, instead of having to travel to much higher latitudes. These branched channels are strong evidence for flowing water on Mars, perhaps during a much warmer period. Close-up of gullies in crater, as seen by HiRISE under the HiWish program. Jezza Crater, as seen by HiRISE. and was measured from orbit by the Mars Odyssey instruments. Image located in Hellas quadrangle. , Rocks on Mars have been found to frequently occur as layers, called strata, in many different places. Charitum Montes Gullies. Location is Hellas quadrangle. Click on image to see the gullies which may have formed from recent flows of water. Click on image to see dark slope streaks and layers. Also, the high density of small branching channels indicates a great deal of precipitation because they are similar to stream channels on the Earth. Location is Noachis quadrangle. Image is located in Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle. Image located in Argyre quadrangle.  Lineated deposits are one example of these probable rock-covered glaciers. Dark Streaks in Arabia quadrangle. Mantle was probably formed from snow and dust falling during a different climate. When the ice is exposed to the Martian atmosphere it slowly sublimates. The presence of clay, magnesium sulfate, kieserite, calcite, hematite, and goethite strongly suggest that water was once in the area. So, in this region the temperature remained far below the freezing point (0°) of water. Location is Phaethontis quadrangle. Image located in Argyre quadrangle. For a more comprehensive description of evidence for water on Mars today, and the history of water on that planet, see Water on Mars. Networks of channels like this are strong evidence for rain on Mars in the past. Location is Phaethontis quadrangle. Two: acidic steam rising through cracks in rocks stripped them of their mineral components, leaving silica behind. Layers may have formed from deposition on the bottom of lakes. This mineral composition closely matches terrestrial granite-like rocks. Mars Odyssey reached Mars in 2001, years before any of the other spacecraft currently examining the planet. Because Viking 2 was much farther north, pictures it took in the winter showed frost.  Washington D.C. Moore, P. et al. This process is common on Earth's deserts. Viking 2 found similar group of minerals. During a press conference in March 2006, mission scientists discussed their conclusions about the bedrock, and the evidence for the presence of liquid water during their formation. Below are some of the many hundreds of gullies that have been studied with HiRISE. In May 2002, NASA announced that the probe had identified large amounts of hydrogen in the soil, implying the presence of ice possibly a mile (meter) below the planet’s surface. Shares. Water vapor condenses on the particles, then they fall down to the ground due to the additional weight of the water coating. This view of the flank of Alba Mons shows several channels/troughs. Location is Noachis quadrangle. Waters from Vedra Valles, Maumee Valles, and Maja Valles went from Lunae Planum on the left, to Chryse Planitia on the right. Perchlorate may be allowing small amounts of liquid water to form on Mars today. Deltas have been identified. Location is Oxia Palus quadrangle. Atlantis Chaos. 2002. The amount of water involved was almost unthinkable—estimates for some channel flows run to ten thousand times the flow of the Mississippi River. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. The Phoenix lander set down at about 68 degrees north latitude, so the discovery of water ice in LDAs greatly expands the range of easily available on Mars. Image from the Eridania quadrangle. Inverted Channel with many branches in Syrtis Major quadrangle. Images below, taken with HiRISE show sinuous ridges that are old channels that have become inverted.  HiRISE image showing gullies. Their surfaces have ridged and grooved materials that deflect around obstacles. Many gullies are imaged over and over to see if any changes occur. Craters like this suggest that large amounts of frozen water were melted when the impact crater was produced. Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust. With more than 10 years in orbit and counting, the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft has spent more time in orbit around the Red Planet, collecting data on Mars' climate and geology, than any other spacecraft in history. Semeykin Crater Drainage. Carbonates, sulfates, and silica should precipitate out ahead of them. A large trough or graben turns into a line of collapse pits.
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