inception. Observatory and would travel to the McDonald Observatory in Texas to work as a She created the first astronomical program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). and later an assistant professor but as this position was not a permanent one, It was this work for which she garnered the nickname, the Mother of the Hubble Space Telescope. She interpreted that as an invitation to apply, and was the applicant who accepted the position. He said, "which is often forgotten by our younger generation of astronomers who make their careers by using Hubble Space Telescope". From a young age, Dr. Roman showed an interest in astronomy, and when she was 11 years old she organized a club with her classmates in Reno, Nevada.  Van de Kamp taught Roman in a solo lecture course on astrometry, introducing her to learning about professional astronomy by encouraging her use of the astronomy library. Their family moved quite a bit while she was growing up and The following are a selection of articles by Nancy Grace Roman that for the most part, as of 2020, were in the top 100 most-cited papers of each year indicated; Roman published 97 scientific papers during her lifetime. In 2010 she received the Association of Women in Aerospace’s Lifetime Achievement Award. Low. DecoScience is a trademark of Lockwood Scientific Group Inc. , In recognition of her advancement of women in senior science management, Roman received recognitions from several women’s organizations, including the Women’s Education and Industrial Union, the Ladies’ Home Journal Magazine, Women in Aerospace, the Women’s History Museum, and the American Association of University Women. , Roman oversaw the development and launch of the three small astronomical satellites[disambiguation needed], the X-ray explorer Uhuru (satellite) in 1970 with Riccardo Giacconi, the gamma-ray telescope Small Astronomy Satellite 2 in 1972, and the multi-instrument X-ray telescope Small Astronomy Satellite 3 in 1975. To share with more than one person, separate addresses with a comma. The other three women were Sally Ride, Mae Jemison, and Margaret Hamilton. Roman noticed that the stars with the stronger lines moved closer to the center of the Milky Way and the others moved in more elliptical patterns, off of the plane of the galaxy. She graduated in February 1946, and van de Kamp suggested that she continue astronomy in graduate studies at the University of Chicago, which was then rebuilding its astronomy department post-World War II. Nancy Grace Roman worked for NASA for nearly two decades and was one of the first women executives there. That was proven by comparing hydrogen lines of the low dispersion spectra in the stars. , Roman’s radio astronomy work included mapping much of the Milky Way galaxy at a frequency of 440MHz, determining the spectral break in the nonthermal radio emission. This cemented her international reputation, and as she was the first civilian to visit the country after the start of the Cold War, the visit also raised her visibility in the United States, with invitations to speak about the trip leading to a series of astronomy lectures. Our latest installation into our Women in Science blog Dr. Roman is a distinguished American astronomer whose career has ranged from scientific research, to creating the first NASA astronomical program, to working with the teachers and students of today. She earned her doctorate in astronomy from there in 1949. was in high school that she wanted to pursue a career in astronomy although she In 2017 she was one of four women honored as pioneers in space by having a Lego toy piece modeled after them. learn all about the constellations from various books.  Radio astronomy was then a very young field in the United States, and NRL had taken an early lead by building the largest accurate radio telescope in 1951, a 50-foot parabolic antenna located on top of one of its research buildings. , In 1959, Roman proposed, perhaps for the first time, that detecting planets around other stars might be possible using a space-based telescope, and even suggested a technique employing a rotated coronagraphic mask; a similar approach was ultimately used with the Hubble Space Telescope to image the possible exoplanet Fomalhaut B (ref K.) and will be used by WFIRST to image exoplanets similar to the giant planets in our own solar system. which went on to take some of the most stunning photographs of space. study of the Earth’s shape, orientation in space, and its magnetic fields) Trivia. , Roman's position became Chief of Astronomy and Solar Physics at NASA from 1961 to 1963. Roman remained at the University of Chicago, teaching and conducting research. was…).  In a 2017 interview, Roman said: “I like to talk to children about the advantages of going into science and particularly to tell the girls, by showing them my life, that they can be scientists and succeed.”, From 1955 on, she lived in the Washington, D.C. area, in the later years in Chevy Chase, Maryland with her mother, who died in 1992.  She spent three years there, rising to become head of the microwave spectroscopy section of the radio astronomy program. One of her discoveries was that stars made of hydrogen and helium move faster than stars composed of other heavier elements. Baltimore and graduated in 3 years. Choose a language from the menu above to view a computer-translated version of this page. spectroscopy (the study of matter using microwave Malerbo, Dan (March 19, 2009). Roman earned many awards and honors during her lifetime. Shortly after NASA was formed, Roman was asked to set up a program in space astronomy. Nancy Grace Roman was an American astronomer. was discouraged by many during her life.  In an interview with Voice of America, Roman remembered asking her high school guidance counselor if she could take second year algebra instead of Latin. Inquiries regarding DecoScience website, images, and intellectual property may be directed to [email protected] take Latin.  , Like most women in the sciences in the mid-twentieth century, Roman was faced with problems related to male domination in science and technology and the roles perceived as appropriate for women in that time period. ", "Nancy Roman: Chief of NASA's Astronomy and Relativity Programs", "Identification of a Constellation from a Position", "NASA Names Astrophysics Fellowship for Iconic Woman Astronomer", "Naval Research Laboratory Radio Astronomy History", "Ellipsoid Parameters from Satellite Data", "Celebrating Women in STEM: Dr. Nancy Grace Roman", "Copernicus at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes", "Hubblesite – TheSpace Telescope's Journey", "20181128 Nancy Grace Roman Mother of Hubble Telescope", "Nancy Grace Roman résumé at Montgomery College", "Nancy Grace Roman Goddard Engineering Colloquium Announcement", "Nancy Grace Roman, involved with Hubble telescope, dies", "Nancy Grace Roman, astronomer celebrated as 'mother' of Hubble, dies at 93", "Agency Awards Historical Recipient List", Published chronological list of awardees, 1959 ff, page 13, "Fellows, American Astronautical Society", "AAUW Dr. Nancy Grace Roman To be Honored at Women of Distinction Ceremony", "Women of NASA Lego toy set now on sale for $24.99", "An astronomer's big legacy in miniature", "NASA Science Live: Expanding Our View of the Universe", Oral History interview transcript with Nancy G. Roman 19 August 1980, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives, Interviews with Nancy Grace Roman, The Mother of Hubble, 2014-2017 - Media Resources from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Nancy Grace Roman and the Dawn of Space Astronomy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nancy_Roman&oldid=984855537, Pages using infobox scientist with unknown parameters, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Citation for Public Service, Colorado Women's College – 1966, Ninetieth Anniversary Award, Women's Education and Industrial Union (Boston) – 1967, NASA Outstanding Scientific Leadership Award – 1978, William Randolph Lovelace II Award, American Astronautical Association – 1979 & 2011, Lifetime Achievement Award – Women in Aerospace – 2010, Woman of Distinction from American Association of University Women, Maryland – 2016, NASA fellowship program, The Nancy Grace Roman Technology Fellowship in, Episode 113 of the "Hubblecast" podcast "Nancy Roman – The Mother of Hubble" was created in her honor, a video presentation that documents her career and explores her contribution to science, In 2020, NASA named the Roman Space Telescope, formerly the, This page was last edited on 22 October 2020, at 14:34.
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