Wanda Kiedrzy'nska, in: National Library of Poland, Warsaw, Manuscript Division, Sygn. Head wardress at the Uckermark death complex of Ravensbrück was Ruth Neudeck (January 1945 – March 1945). 129ff. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 In early March, the SS began “evacuating” Ravensbrück when they transported 2,100 male prisoners to Sachsenhausen. In 2005, Ravensbrück survivor Judith Sherman published a book of prose and poetry titled Say the Name. As World War II drew to a close in the spring of 1945, the Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte made a deal with the devil to save 6,000 Scandinavians from the Nazi concentration camps. In January 1945, Ravensbrück and its subcamps held over 45,000 female prisoners and over 5,000 male prisoners. Based on the Nazis' incomplete transport list Zugangsliste, documenting 25,028 names of women sent by Nazis to the camp, it is estimated that the Ravensbrück prisoner population's ethnic structure comprised: Poles 24.9%, Germans 19.9%, Jews 15.1%, Soviets 15.0%, French 7.3%, Romani 5.4%, other 12.4%. Two types of experiments were conducted on the Polish political prisoners. In 1943, for instance, a group of Norwegian women came to the camp (Norwegians/Scandinavians were ranked by the Nazis as the purest of all Aryans). To Life: The Liberation of Ravensbrück brings to Southwest Florida, for the first time, the story of the Swedish Red Cross White Buses. Most of the 'SS' women met their prisoner work gangs at the gate each morning and returned them later in the day. The SS also built several factories near Ravensbrück for the production of textiles and electrical components. Up to his death in 1957, the artist created a large number of sculpted models of women. Between 120 and 140 Romani women were sterilised in the camp in January 1945.  The first type tested the efficacy of sulfonamide drugs. At the same time a new, permanent outdoor exhibition was opened, on the theme of the train transports to Ravensbrück. In January 1945 the SS also transformed a hut near the crematorium into a gas chamber where the Germans gassed several thousand prisoners before the camp's liberation in April 1945; in particular they killed some 3600 prisoners from the Uckermark police camp for "deviant" girls and women, which was taken under the control of the Ravensbrück SS at the start of 1945.  Some 2,500 ethnic German prisoners remaining were released, and 500 women were handed over to officials of the Swedish and Danish Red Cross shortly after the evacuation. The camp memorial’s estimated figure of 132,000 women who were in the camp during the war includes about 48,500 from Poland, 28,000 from the Soviet Union, almost 24,000 from Germany and Austria, nearly 8,000 from France, and thousands from other countries including a few from the United Kingdom and the United States. 12–24; Karl-Heinz Roth: forced labor in the Siemens Group (1938–1945). At the end of March, the SS ordered all physically capable women to form a column and exit the camp in the direction of northern Mecklenburg, forcing over 24,500 prisoners on a death march. In late April, SS guards forced about 20,000 female prisoners, as well as most of the remaining male prisoners, on a brutal and forced evacuation on foot toward northern Mecklenberg. Located alongside Lake Schwedt, about 50 miles north of Berlin, Ravensbrück opened on May 15, 1939, and, three days later, the first group of 867 women arrived from Lichtenburg in Saxony, a fortress that had been used as a women's camp from March 1938 until May 1939. , Coordinates: 53°11′20.4″N 13°10′12″E / 53.189000°N 13.17000°E / 53.189000; 13.17000, Women's concentration camp in Germany during World War II, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHelm2015 (. 36f, where, according to the catalogs of the International Tracing Service Arolsen and Martin Weinmann (eds.).  By the end of 1942, the inmate population of Ravensbrück had grown to about 10,000. Soviet prisoners of war, and German and Austrian Communists wore red triangles; common criminals wore green triangles; and Jehovah's Witnesses were labelled with lavender triangles. In January 1945, Ravensbrück and its subcamps held over 45,000 female prisoners and over 5,000 male prisoners. The second set of experiments studied bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration, and the possibility of transplanting bones from one person to another. In early March, the SS began "evacuating" Ravensbrück when they transported 2,100 male prisoners to Sachsenhausen. Find topics of interest and explore encyclopedia content related to those topics, Find articles, photos, maps, films, and more listed alphabetically, Recommended resources and topics if you have limited time to teach about the Holocaust, Explore the ID Cards to learn more about personal experiences during the Holocaust. Its central exhibit is a refurbished goods wagon. https://www.sciencespo.fr/mass-violence-war-massacre-resistance/en/document/violence-female-guards-nazi-concentration-camps-1939-1945-reflections-dynamics-and-logics-p, http://www.simon-wiesenthal-archiv.at/02_dokuzentrum/02_faelle/e05_braunsteiner.html, "Sweet lady surprise: Nazi prison-guard past", "KZ RAVENSBRÜCK-WOMEN INCARCERATED-PART 2", "Ravensbrück Concentration Camp: History & Overview", If This Is A Woman: Inside Ravensbruck: Hitler's Concentration Camp for Women, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Medical Experiments Conducted on Polish Inmates, Site created in conjunction with a group of Dutch survivors from the camp, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia entry, Voices from Ravensbrück – a unique collection of sources from the survivors of Ravensbrück, Collection of testimonies concerning KL Ravensbrück in "Chronicles of Terror" testimony database, Catalog of Pins and Medals Commemorating Ravensbrück Concentration Camp, SS Main Economic and Administrative Office, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ravensbrück_concentration_camp&oldid=985536578, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2016, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mostly female political prisoners, 48,500 Polish; 28,000 Soviet Union, 20,000-plus Jews. The Tribunal sentenced both to death. Bundesarchiv Berlin, NS 19, No. , In January 1945, prior to the liberation of the remaining camp survivors, an estimated 45,000 female prisoners and over 5,000 male prisoners remained at Ravensbrück, including children and those transported from satellite camps only for gassing, which was being performed in haste. Main telephone: 202.488.0400 The German Communist, Margarete Buber-Neumann, came to Ravensbrück as an inmate after nearly two years in a Russian Soviet Gulag. The bodies of those killed in the camp were cremated in the nearby Fürstenberg crematorium until 1943, when SS authorities constructed a crematorium at a site near the camp prison.